4D printing of multi-hydrogels using direct ink writing in a supporting viscous liquid

Takuya Uchida, Hiroaki Onoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a method to print four-dimensional (4D) stimuli-responsive hydrogel structures with internal gaps. Our 4D structures are fabricated by printing an N-isopropylacrylamide-based stimuli-responsive pre-gel solution (NIPAM-based ink) and an acrylamide-based non-responsive pre-gel solution (AAM-based ink) in a supporting viscous liquid (carboxymethyl cellulose solution) and by polymerizing the printed structures using ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. First, the printed ink position and width were investigated by varying various parameters. The position of the printed ink changed according to physical characteristics of the ink and supporting liquid and printing conditions including the flow rates of the ink and the nozzle diameter, position, and speed. The width of the printed ink was mainly influenced by the ink flow rate and the nozzle speed. Next, we confirmed the polymerization of the printed ink in the supporting viscous liquid, as well as its responsivity to thermal stimulation. The degree of polymerization became smaller, as the interval time was longer after printing. The polymerized ink shrunk or swelled repeatedly according to thermal stimulation. In addition, printing multi-hydrogels was demonstrated by using a nozzle attached to a Y shape connector, and the responsivity of the multi-hydrogels to thermal-stimulation was investigated. The pattern of the multi-hydrogels structure and its responsivity to thermal-stimulation were controlled by the flow ratio of the inks. Finally, various 4D structures including a rounded pattern, a spiral shape pattern, a cross point, and a multi-hydrogel pattern were fabricated, and their deformations in response to the stimuli were demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number433
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 1


  • 3D printing
  • 4D printing
  • Stimuli-responsive hydrogel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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