A 15-Year-Old Boy with Primary Maxillary Bone Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Relapsed with Rib Metastasis after Spontaneous Remission of a Maxillary Bone Lesion: A Case Report and Literature Review

Kaito Aizawa, Fumito Yamazaki, Haruko Shima, Takumi Kurosawa, Takahiro Ishikawa, Atsuko Nakazawa, Hiroyuki Shimada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in children, accounting for 10-15% of all NHL cases. ALCL is currently classified as follows: systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive, systemic ALK-negative, primary cutaneous, and breast implant-associated ALCL. In children, systemic ALK-positive ALCL is the most common, and patients often present with extranodal involvement. We report a rare case of systemic ALK-positive ALCL with primary bone involvement in a 15-year-old male patient. Primary bone lymphoma is most commonly observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and is extremely rare in systemic ALCL. Therefore, the clinical features and prognosis of primary bone ALCL remain unclear. Our patient had spontaneous remission of primary maxillary bone ALCL after gingival scraping but relapsed 12 months later with rib metastasis. Spontaneous remission of ALCL has been reported frequently in primary cutaneous ALCL and rarely in systemic ALCL. Our case demonstrates for the first time that systemic ALCL can also present as solitary bone involvement that can spontaneously remit. Because systemic ALCL is aggressive and has a risk of relapse, as in our case, it is important to consider ALCL in the differential diagnosis of primary bone lesions and to make a precise pathological diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-320
Number of pages7
JournalCase Reports in Oncology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 May 12

Keywords

  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
  • Primary bone lymphoma
  • Spontaneous remission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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