A monolithically integrated three-axis accelerometer using CMOS compatible stress-sensitive differential amplifiers

Hidekuni Takao, Yoshinori Matsumoto, Makoto Ishida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the development of a bulk-microniachined CMOS integrated three-axis accelerometer which includes analog signal conditioning circuits is presented. The accelerometer was designed to simplify the signal processing tasks by incorporating a set of circuits for three-axis signal conditioning. This approach resulted in a 25% reduction of the circuit area. Stress-sensitive differential amplifiers (SSDA's) have been used as signal transducers, because they can be conveniently formed in a small area. The sensitivity and resolution of the fabricated devices realized in 8 x 8 mm2 die area were 192 mV/g and 0.024 g for Z-axis acceleration, and 23 mV/g and 0.23 g for X and Y axis acceleration, respectively. The electrical noise component in the analog CMOS circuits was reduced by using a chopper stabilization technique. It was observed that there is a proper chopping clock frequency range to maximize the noise reduction effect. The noise of the SSDA was found to be related with the characteristics of CMOS differential amplifiers used. Typical temperature coefficient of sensitivity was about -2000 ppm/°C, which could be reduced to -320 ppm/ °C or less by selecting a proper bias condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-116
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Acceleration measurement
  • CMOS integrated circuits
  • Differential amplifiers
  • Intelligent sensors
  • Piezoresistive devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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