A Preliminary Pilot Study: Metabolomic Analysis of Saliva in Oral Candidiasis

Takuya Adachi, Norishige Kawanishi, Narumi Ichigaya, Masahiro Sugimoto, Noriyuki Hoshi, Katsuhiko Kimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Early detection of oral candidiasis is essential. However, most currently available methods are time-consuming and useful only for screening patients. Previous studies on the relationship between oral candidiasis and saliva have focused on saliva volume and not on its components. Therefore, to clarify the effects of oral candidiasis on salivary metabolites, the relationship between salivary components and oral candidiasis was investigated by comparing the salivary metabolites of oral candidiasis patients and those not previously diagnosed with candidiasis. Forty-five participants visiting our university hospital were included and classified into two groups, the Candida group and the control group, based on the Candida detection test results. The unstimulated saliva was collected using the spitting method over 15 min, and the stimulated saliva was collected using the gum-chewing method over 10 min. The saliva volume was measured, and the saliva samples were frozen and analyzed metabolomically. Metabolome analysis revealed 51 metabolites with peak detection rates exceeding 50%. There was no significant difference in age and sex between the Candida and control groups. In the Candida group, five metabolites (tyrosine, choline, phosphoenolpyruvate, histidine, and 6-phosphogluconate) were significantly elevated in the unstimulated, two (octanoic acid and uridine monophosphate(UMP)) were significantly increased, and four (ornithine, butyrate, aminovalerate and aminolevulinate) were significantly decreased in the stimulated saliva. This study suggests the possibility of identifying metabolites specific to patients with oral candidiasis, which could aid prompt diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1294
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • Candida albicans
  • metabolome analysis
  • oral candidiasis
  • stimulated saliva
  • unstimulated saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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