A Simple Formulation of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of a Polarizable Fluid

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2 Citations (Scopus)


An expression of the total entropy production rate of a one-component polarizable fluid without an intrinsic angular momentum is derived from conservation laws in the Newtonian mechanics. A simple expression of the field energy-momentum four-tensor derived by Imai [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60 (1991) 4100] saves us a lot of calculations, and allows us to define the heat flux and the internal energy consistently. Our derivation supposes neither small polarization nor small magnetization, and terms involving them come out symmetrically. Our result is naturally expressed in terms of the fields measured in the unique inertial frame where the fluid is relaxed to be at rest.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1556-1564
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Physical Society of Japan
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Jun 1


  • Abraham-Minkowski controversy
  • Electromagnetism in continuous media
  • Entropy production rate
  • Field energy-momentum four-tensor
  • Linear phenomenological equations
  • Maxwell equation
  • Nonrelativistic approximation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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