A small dice game for the kingman formula

Christoph Roser, Masaru Nakano

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


There are three main factors influencing the waiting time of a single-arrival single-process system: the utilization, the fluctuation of the arrival, and the fluctuation of the process time. The influence of these is not linear, and the combination of these effects is worse than the individual sums. Different approximations exist for this relation, the most popular one being probably the Kingman equation. Now it is one thing to understand this in theory, but experiencing this in practice makes it much easier to understand and will prepare practitioners much better for its effect. This paper describes a quick and easy game to have the practitioners experience the individual and combined effects of both utilization and fluctuation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Production Management Systems. Production Management for Data-Driven, Intelligent, Collaborative, and Sustainable Manufacturing - IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2018, Proceedings
EditorsIlkyeong Moon, Jinwoo Park, Dimitris Kiritsis, Gregor von Cieminski, Gyu M. Lee
PublisherSpringer New York LLC
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9783319997032
Publication statusPublished - 2018
EventIFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2018 - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: 2018 Aug 262018 Aug 30

Publication series

NameIFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology
ISSN (Print)1868-4238


OtherIFIP WG 5.7 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2018
Country/TerritoryKorea, Republic of


  • Kingman equation
  • Utilization
  • Variation
  • Waiting time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems and Management


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