A time-resolved fluorescence probe for dipeptidyl peptidase 4 and its application in inhibitor screening

Mitsuyasu Kawaguchi, Takayoshi Okabe, Takuya Terai, Kenjiro Hanaoka, Hirotatsu Kojima, Izumi Minegishi, Tetsuo Nagano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing dramatically throughout the world. Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified as a potential antidiabetes target. Many DPP4 inhibitors, such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin, have been developed and marketed, but superior therapeutic agents are still required. Therefore, we have developed new methodology for screening of DPP4 inhibitors. Absorption-based measurements with para-nitroaniline or fluorescence-based measurements with the coumarin derivative 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin are often used for the screening of protease inhibitors, including DPP4 inhibitors, but these strategies are not sufficiently sensitive because of interfering background absorption and fluorescence, thus giving rise to many false-positive and false-negative results. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel DPP4 probe (Gly-Pro-BCD-Tb; Gly=glycine, Pro=proline, andBCD defines the backbone of the probe comprising an aniline derivative as on/off switch, a 7-amino-4-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone (cs-124) as antenna moiety, and a diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as chelator moiety, Tb=terbium) for time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements. TRF measurements with Gly-Pro-BCD-Tb showed high sensitivity and reliability in the inhibitory assay relative to Gly-Pro-MCA (MCA=4- methylcoumarin-7-amide), a conventional fluorescence probe for DPP4. Further, we employed our probe for high-throughput DPP4 inhibitor screening with 3841 randomly selected compounds and found that epibestatin, an epimer of bestatin (a well-known anticancer drug and general aminopeptidase inhibitor), showed dose-dependent DPP4 inhibitory activity. Interestingly, bestatin did not exhibit DPP4 inhibitory activity. We believe that this screening system will be useful for the discovery of DPP4 inhibitors with novel structural scaffolds. Reliable and highly sensitive inhibitor screening has been realised through the synthesis of a novel dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) probe (see picture). The inhibitor screening employed high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurements and identified epibestatin as a DPP4 inhibitor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13479-13486
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec 3
Externally publishedYes


  • diabetes
  • fluorescence spectroscopy
  • high-throughput screening
  • lanthanides
  • luminescence
  • proteases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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