In bone regeneration, there are some important cellular biological processes, such as mineralization, cell organization, and differentiation. In particular, vascularization into regenerative tissues is a key step for the survival of cells and tissues. In this study, to fabricate biomimetic-engineered bone, including vascular networks, we focused on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a multifunctional protein which could regulate the extracellular matrix remodeling. By combination with CTGF and hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics (2D) or apatite-fiber scaffold (AFS, 3D), we have fabricated bioactive materials. The CTGF-loaded HAp ceramics could enhance the cellular attachment through interaction with integrin and promote actin cytoskeletal reorganization. CTGF-loaded HAp also enhanced the differentiation of osteoblasts by integrin-mediated activation of the signaling pathway. Under co-culture conditions, both osteoblasts and endothelial cells in the CTGF-loaded AFS were stimulated by CTGF, and each cell could penetrate the central region of the scaffold in vitro and in vivo. Direct cell-cell interaction would also improve the functionality of cells in bone formation. These results suggest that coupling between effective optimized scaffold and CTGF with multifunction could provide better mimicking natural bone by stimulation of angiogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Materials Science