Activation of toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 on human melanoma cells induces inflammatory factors

Yasufumi Goto, Takaaki Arigami, Minoru Kitago, Sandy L. Nguyen, Norihiko Narita, Soldano Ferrone, Donald L. Morton, Reiko F. Irie, Dave S.B. Hoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Citations (Scopus)


Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been shown to be expressed on various types of cancers; however, their functional activity is not known. We examined TLR profiles of human melanoma cells and showed that TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 were found to be highly expressed. By PCR array analysis, specific stimulation of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 on melanoma cells showed significant activation of the adaptor protein MyD88, as well as downstream signal transduction factors nuclear factor-κB and inflammatory response-related factors. Specific ligand activation of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 was shown to induce cell migration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and melanoma purified RNA was shown to activate TLR3 on melanoma cells. These studies show expression and functional activity of specific TLRs on melanoma cells and as potential therapeutic targets to control tumor progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3642-3653
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular cancer therapeutics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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