Background: Sarcopenia with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression is associated with life prognosis. Oxidative stress has attracted interest as a trigger for causing CKD-related muscular atrophy. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), a uraemic toxin, are known to increase oxidative stress. However, the role of AOPPs on CKD-induced muscle atrophy remains unclear. Methods: In a retrospective case–control clinical study, we evaluated the relationship between serum AOPPs levels and muscle strength in haemodialysis patients with sarcopenia (n = 26, mean age ± SEM: 78.5 ± 1.4 years for male patients; n = 22, mean age ± SEM: 79.1 ± 1.5 for female patients), pre-sarcopenia (n = 12, mean age ± SEM: 73.8 ± 2.0 years for male patients; n = 4, mean age ± SEM: 74.3 ± 4.1 for female patients) or without sarcopenia (n = 12, mean age ± SEM: 71.3 ± 1.6 years for male patients; n = 7, mean age ± SEM: 77.7 ± 1.6 for female). The molecular mechanism responsible for the AOPPs-induced muscle atrophy was investigated by using 5/6-nephrectomized CKD mice, AOPPs-overloaded mice, and C2C12 mouse myoblast cells. Results: The haemodialysis patients with sarcopenia showed higher serum AOPPs levels as compared with the patients without sarcopenia. The serum AOPPs levels showed a negative correlation with grip strength (P < 0.01 for male patients, P < 0.01 for female patients) and skeletal muscle index (P < 0.01 for male patients). Serum AOPPs levels showed a positive correlation with cysteinylated albumin (Cys-albumin), a marker of oxidative stress (r2 = 0.398, P < 0.01). In the gastrocnemius of CKD mice, muscle AOPPs levels were also increased, and it showed a positive correlation with atrogin-1 (r2 = 0.538, P < 0.01) and myostatin expression (r2 = 0.421, P < 0.05), but a negative correlation with PGC-1α expression (r2 = 0.405, P < 0.05). Using C2C12 cells, AOPPs increased atrogin-1 and myostatin expression through the production of reactive oxygen species via CD36/NADPH oxidase pathway, and decreased myotube formation. AOPPs also induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In the AOPPs-overloaded mice showed that decreasing running time and hanging time accompanied by increasing AOPPs levels and decreasing cross-sectional area in gastrocnemius. Conclusions: Advanced oxidation protein products contribute to CKD-induced sarcopenia, suggesting that AOPPs or its downstream signalling pathway could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of CKD-induced sarcopenia. Serum AOPPs or Cys-albumin levels could be a new diagnostic marker for sarcopenia in CKD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physiology (medical)