An ultra-short measure for work engagement: The UWES-3 validation across five countries

Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Akihito Shimazu, Jari Hakanen, Marisa Salanova, Hans De Witte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

402 Citations (Scopus)


The current study introduces an ultra-short, 3-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Using five national samples from Finland (N = 22,117), Japan (N = 1,968), the Netherlands (N = 38,278), Belgium/Flanders (N = 5,062), and Spain (N = 10,040) its internal consistency and factorial validity vis-à-vis validated measures of burnout, workaholism, and job boredom are demonstrated. Moreover, the UWES-3 shares 86-92% of its variance with the longer nine-item version and the pattern of correlations of both versions with 9 indicators of well-being, 8 job demands, 10 job resources, and 6 outcomes is highly similar with an average, absolute difference between correlations of only .02. Hence, it is concluded that the UWES-3 is a reliable and valid indicator of work engagement that can be used as an alternative to the longer version, for instance in national and international epidemiological surveys on employee's working conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-591
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Employee engagement
  • Measurement
  • Utrecht Work Engagement Scale
  • Work engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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