Analogical Reasoning with Deep Learning-Based Symbolic Processing

Hiroshi Honda, Masafumi Hagiwara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The authors propose analogical reasoning systems based on first-order predicate logic using deep learning. The proposed systems consist of a model combining recursive neural networks and Word2Vec. When unknown data is input in this trained model, similar outputs to those of the trained data are obtained. Previous studies on symbolic inference using deep learning have focused on deductive and inductive inferences, and they require rule templates that are manually created and provided to the models in advance. However, it is not enough to infer unknown rules from a large amount of data on the Internet. Analogical reasoning is a mode of inference that attempts to solve a new case based on similarity. Thus, it enables inference of rules that were challenging to comprehend in previous studies. As a result of the experiments, unknown rules can be efficiently inferred from known rules contained in the knowledge bases. Using the proposed systems, the authors can extract unknown rules from five of the eight datasets consisting of three types of knowledge bases described in Prolog. The proposed method is the first case of analogical reasoning based on the first-order predicate logic using deep learning. Furthermore, the models used in the proposed systems have shown high robustness when using Word2Vec. For this reason, it is suggested that the practical applications of the proposed systems enable efficient inferences from a large amount of data that include noisy data on the Internet.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9526637
Pages (from-to)121859-121870
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Analogical reasoning
  • Word2Vec
  • deep learning
  • knowledge base
  • prolog
  • symbolic processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Computer Science(all)


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