Analysis of a Human Meta-Strategy for Agents with Active and Passive Strategies

Kensuke Miyamoto, Norifumi Watanabe, Osamu Nakamura, Yoshiyasu Takefuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human cooperative behavior includes passive action strategies based on others and active action strategies that prioritize one’s own objective. Therefore, for cooperation with humans, it is necessary to realize a robot that uses these strategies to communicate as a human would. In this research, we aim to realize robots that evaluate the actions of their opponents in comparison with their own action strategies. In our previous work, we obtained a Meta-Strategy with two action strategies through the simulation of learning between agents. However, humans’ Meta-Strategies may have different characteristics depending on the individual in question. In this study, we conducted a collision avoidance experiment in a grid space with agents with active and passive strategies for giving way. In addition, we analyzed whether a subject’s action changes when the agent’s strategy changes. The results showed that some subjects changed their actions in response to changes in the agent’s strategy, as well as subjects who behaved in a certain way regardless of the agent’s strategy and subjects who did not divide their actions. We considered that these types could be expressed in terms of differences in Meta-Strategies, such as active or passive Meta-Strategies for estimating an opponent’s strategy. Assuming a human Meta-Strategy, we discuss the action strategies of agents who can switch between active and passive strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8720
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept


  • Meta-Strategy
  • agent model
  • collision avoidance
  • human action measurement experiment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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