Antibiotic prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A meta-analysis ofrandomized controlled trials

Shun ichi Kimura, Yu Akahoshi, Hirofumi Nakano, Tomotaka Ugai, Hidenori Wada, Ryoko Yamasaki, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Masahiro Ashizawa, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Hideki Nakasone, Misato Kikuchi, Rie Yamazaki, Shinichi Kako, Junya Kanda, Aki Tanihara, Junji Nishida, Yoshinobu Kanda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Methods: We collected reports from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science, along with references cited therein. We included prospective, randomized studies on systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Results: Seventeen trials with 1453 autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients were included. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis was compared with placebo or no prophylaxis in 10 trials and with non-absorbable antibiotics in two trials. Systemic antibiotics other than fluoroquinolones were evaluated in five of these 12 trials. Four trials evaluated the effect of the addition of antibiotics for gram-positive bacteria to fluoroquinolones. One trial compared two different systemic antibiotic regimens: fluoroquinolones versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. As a result, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the incidence of febrile episodes (OR 0.16; 95%CI 0.09-0.30), clinically or microbiologically documented infection (OR 0.38; 95%CI 0.22-0.63) and bacteremia (OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.16-0.59) without significantly affecting all-cause mortality or infection-related mortality. Conclusions: Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis successfully reduced the incidence of infection. However, there was no significant impact on mortality. The clinical benefits of prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones were inconclusive because of the small number of clinical trials evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-25
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Infection
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jul
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Meta-analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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