Antibody and T-Cell Responses against SARS-CoV-2 after Booster Vaccination in Patients on Dialysis: A Prospective Observational Study

Moe Kawashima, Hiroaki Saito, Takamitsu Nishiuchi, Hiroki Yoshimura, Masatoshi Wakui, Yuta Tani, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Fumiya Omata, Morihito Takita, Tianchen Zhao, Chika Yamamoto, Yurie Kobashi, Takeshi Kawamura, Akira Sugiyama, Aya Nakayama, Yudai Kaneko, Toyoaki Sawano, Kenji Shibuya, Junichiro Kazama, Ryuzaburo ShinehaMasaharu Tsubokura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Intensive vaccination is recommended for populations more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection, although data regarding the built of immunity after vaccination for dialysis patients are lacking. This prospective, observational cohort study of maintenance hemodialysis patients examined IgG antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein, neutralizing activity, and interferon gamma levels after the third dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. Humoral immunity was repeatedly measured for up to two months. The study includes 58 patients on hemodialysis. Median neutralizing antibodies reached a maximum at 56 and 9 days after booster vaccination with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively. The median IgG antibody titer reached a maximum of 3104.38 and 7209.13 AU/mL after 16 days of booster dose, and cellular immunity was positive in 61.9% and 100% of patients with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccination, respectively. By repeating the measurements over a period of two months, we clarified the chronological aspects of the acquisition of humoral immunity in dialysis patients after a booster COVID-19 vaccination; most dialysis patients acquired not only humoral immunity, but also cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Future research should investigate the continued long-term dynamics of antibody titers and cellular immunity after the third or further vaccinations, evaluating the need for additional vaccinations for hemodialysis patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number260
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb


  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • cellular immunity
  • humoral immunity
  • renal dialysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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