Antihypertensive effects and safety of esaxerenone in patients with moderate kidney dysfunction

Sadayoshi Ito, Hiroshi Itoh, Hiromi Rakugi, Yasuyuki Okuda, Setsuko Iijima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Renin–angiotensin system inhibitors are recommended for treating hypertension with chronic kidney disease. The addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker may be one option to achieve target blood pressure. We investigated the efficacy and safety of esaxerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, in Japanese hypertensive patients with moderate kidney dysfunction. Two multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized dose escalation studies were conducted to investigate esaxerenone monotherapy and add-on therapy to renin–angiotensin system inhibitor treatment. Esaxerenone therapy was initiated at 1.25 mg/day and titrated to 2.5 and then 5 mg/day for a treatment duration of 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were changes from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios were also assessed. Thirty-three patients received monotherapy, and 58 received add-on therapy; the mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates were 51.9 and 50.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The esaxerenone dosage was increased to ≥2.5 mg/day in 100% (n = 33) and 93.1% (n = 54) of patients receiving monotherapy and add-on therapy, respectively. Reductions in sitting blood pressure from baseline to the end of treatment were similar (monotherapy: −18.5/−8.8 mmHg; add-on therapy: −17.8/−8.1 mmHg; both P < 0.001). The antihypertensive effects of esaxerenone were consistent across patient subgroups. A serum K+ level ≥5.5 mEq/L was observed in seven patients (12.1%) receiving add-on therapy but in none receiving monotherapy. All increases in serum K+ levels were transient, and no patient met predefined serum K+ level criteria for dose reduction or therapy discontinuation. No patient discontinued treatment owing to kidney function decline. Esaxerenone was effective and well tolerated in hypertensive patients with moderate kidney dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)489-497
Number of pages9
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May


  • Esaxerenone
  • Hypertension
  • Japanese
  • Moderate kidney dysfunction
  • RAS inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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