Are cold extremities an issue in women’s health? Eepidemiological evaluation of cold extremities among Japanese women

Satoshi Tsuboi, Tomosa Mine, Yumi Tomioka, Saeka Sshiraishi, Fujiko Fukushima, Toshiharu Ikaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Unlike traditional East Asian medicine, the necessity of health care services for cold extremities is yet to be acknowledged in Western medicine. In this study, we aimed to conduct an epidemiological evaluation of this unremarkable symptom among women in Japan. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2016 to April 2017, and data of 238 women throughout Japan were analyzed. Questionnaires were used to examine participants’ demographics, health-related behaviors, health status, and frequency of subjective symptoms over the past 1 year. The association between cold extremities and other subjective symptoms was examined by the multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalences of mild and severe cold extremities were 49.6% and 35.3%, respectively. Temperature and utilization of health care services were not significantly different by the severity of cold extremities. The accompanying symptoms that were significantly associated with the cold extremities were shoulder stiffness, fatigue, low back pain, headache, nasal congestion, itching, injury, and difficulty hearing. After multiple logistic regression analysis, low back pain (OR: 4.91) and difficulty hearing (OR: 4.84) kept the significance. Factors related to cold extremities including mental quality of life, sleep quality, and habitual drinking were significantly associated with other accompanying symptoms. Conclusion: Women with cold extremities have various accompanying symptoms and health-risk behaviors. Symptomatic treatment for cold extremities may not be sufficient, and comprehensive care would be required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-39
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Women's Health
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Cold extremities
  • Cold hands
  • Flammer syndrome
  • Patient stratification
  • Risk factors
  • Vascular dysregulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery


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