Assessing the response of cells to TLR stimulation

Kiyoshi Takeda, Masahiro Yamamoto, Kenya Honda

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)


Toll was first identified as an essential receptor for dorsoventral patterning in the developing embryo in Drosophila. In 1996, it was discovered that Drosophila Toll is involved in antifungal responses in the adult fly.1 Since then, the role of Toll receptors in the innate immune response has been studied intensively, not only in insects but also in mammals. This has led to the identification of Toll receptors in mammals, named Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The first mammalian homolog of Drosophila Toll was identified in 1997 as hToll (now termed TLR4).2 Subsequent studies have identified several proteins that are structurally related to TLR4. The TLR family now comprises ten members in humans (TLR1-TLR10) and twelve in the mouse (TLR1TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13). The cytoplasmic portion of Toll-like receptors shows high similarity to that of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family, and is known as the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Despite this similarity, the extracellular portions of both receptors are structurally unrelated. The IL-1 receptor is characterized by the presence of an Ig-like domain, whereas Toll-like receptors bear leucine-rich repeats in the extracellular domain.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSignaling by Toll-Like Receptors
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781420043198
ISBN (Print)9781420043181
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Social Sciences
  • General Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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