Assessing workplace civility: Validity and 1-year test-retest reliability of a Japanese version of the CREW Civility Scale

Kanami Tsuno, Akihito Shimazu, Katerine Osatuke, Kyoko Shimada, Emiko Ando, Akiomi Inoue, Sumiko Kurioka, Norito Kawakami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the eight-item CREW Civility Scale which measures workplace civility norms and compare the civility scores among various occupations. Methods: A longitudinal study included all employees in a social care organization (N = 658) and a cross-sectional study included all civil servants in one city (N = 3242) in Japan. Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Construct validity was assessed through Pearson's correlations of civility with other variables. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and 1-year test-retest reliability was assessed by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Results: The results of CFA showed an acceptable level of model fit (TLI =0.929; CFI =0.949; and SRMR =0.034). CREW Civility Scale scores were significantly positively correlated with supervisor support, co-worker support, and work engagement, while significantly negatively correlated with incivility, workplace bullying, intention to leave, and psychological distress, which were consistent with our hypotheses. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 and ICC was 0.52. Younger, high-educated, and managerial employees and, childminder/nursery staff reported higher civility. High school graduates and respondents who did not graduate from high school, part-time employees, nurses, paramedical staff, and care workers reported lower civility. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the CREW Civility scale is a reliable, valid measure of civility, appropriate for Japanese workplaces as well as for use in multi-national studies alongside other existing versions of this scale in English, Portuguese and Farsi.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12332
JournalJournal of occupational health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1


  • Japan
  • civility
  • reliability
  • scale development
  • validity
  • workers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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