We clarified the association between changes in the number of foundational medications for heart failure (FMHF) during hospitalization for worsening heart failure (HF) and post-discharge prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed a combined dataset from three large-scale registries of hospitalized patients with HF in Japan (NARA-HF, WET-HF, and REALITY-AHF) and patients diagnosed with HF with reduced or mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFr/mrEF) before admission. Patients were stratified by changes in the number of prescribed FMHF classes from admission to discharge: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers. Primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of HF rehospitalization and all-cause death within 1 year of discharge. The cohort comprised 1113 patients, and 482 combined endpoints were observed. Overall, FMHF prescriptions increased in 413 (37.1%) patients (increased group), remained unchanged in 607 (54.5%) (unchanged group), and decreased in 93 (8.4%) (decreased group) at discharge compared with that during admission. In the multivariable analysis, the increased group had a significantly lower incidence of the primary endpoint than the unchanged group (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.45–0.60; P < 0.001). In conclusion, increase in FMHF classes during HF hospitalization is associated with a better prognosis in patients with HFr/mrEF.
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