Asthma is a risk factor for general fatigue of long COVID in Japanese nation-wide cohort study

Keeya Sunata, Jun Miyata, Hideki Terai, Emiko Matsuyama, Mayuko Watase, Ho Namkoong, Takanori Asakura, Katsunori Masaki, Shotaro Chubachi, Keiko Ohgino, Ichiro Kawada, Norihiro Harada, Hitoshi Sasano, Ai Nakamura, Yu Kusaka, Takehiko Ohba, Yasushi Nakano, Kazumi Nishio, Yukiko Nakajima, Shoji SuzukiShuichi Yoshida, Hiroki Tateno, Makoto Ishii, Koichi Fukunaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Multiple prolonged symptoms are observed in patients who recover from an acute COVID-19 infection, which is defined as long COVID. General fatigue is frequently observed in patients with long COVID during acute and post-acute phases. This study aimed to identify the specific risk factors for general fatigue in long COVID. Methods: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged over 18 years were enrolled in a multicenter cohort study at 26 medical institutions. Clinical data during hospitalization and patient-reported outcomes after discharge were collected from medical records, paper-based questionnaires, and smartphone apps. Results: Among prolonged symptoms through 1-year follow-ups, general fatigue was the most interfering symptom in daily life. Patients with protracted fatigue at all follow-up periods had lower quality of life scores at the 12-month follow-up. Univariate logistic regression analysis of the presence or absence of general fatigue at the 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups identified asthma, younger age, and female sex as risk factors for prolonged fatigue. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that asthma was an independent risk factor for persistent fatigue during the 12-month follow-up period. Longitudinal changes in the symptoms of patients with or without asthma demonstrated that general fatigue, not cough and dyspnea, was significantly prolonged in patients with asthma. Conclusions: In a Japanese population with long COVID, prolonged general fatigue was closely linked to asthma. A preventive approach against COVID-19 is necessary to avoid sustained fatigue and minimize social and economic losses in patients with asthma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-213
Number of pages8
JournalAllergology International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr


  • Asthma
  • Female
  • General fatigue
  • Japanese cohort study
  • Long COVID-19

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


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