Blockade of interleukin-6 effects on cytokine profiles and macrophage activation after spinal cord injury in mice

Alexander Rodriguez Guerrero, Kenzo Uchida, Hideaki Nakajima, Shuji Watanabe, Masaya Nakamura, Seiji Okada, William E.B. Johnson, Hisatoshi Baba

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of a temporal blockade of IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) engagement, using an anti-mouse IL-6R monoclonal antibody (MR16-1), on macrophage activation and the inflammatory response in the acute phase after spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. MR16-1 antibodies versus isotype control antibodies or saline alone was administered immediately after thoracic SCI in mice. MR16-1-treated group samples showed increased neuronal regeneration and locomotor recovery compared with controls. Immunoblot analysis of the MR16-1-treated samples identified downregulation of Th1 and upregulation of Th2 cytokines. MR16-1 treatment promoted arginase-1-positive, CD206-positive M2 macrophages, with preferential localization of these cells at the injury site and enhanced positivity for Mac-2 and Mac-3, suggestive of increased phagocytic behavior. The results suggest that temporal blockade of IL-6 signaling after SCI abrogates damaging inflammatory activity and promotes functional recovery by promoting the formation of alternatively activated M2 macrophages.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeuroprotection and Regeneration of the Spinal Cord
PublisherSpringer Japan
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9784431545026
ISBN (Print)4431545018, 9784431545019
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 1


  • Alternatively activated macrophage
  • Interleukin (IL)-6/IL-6 receptor (R)
  • Spinal cord injury
  • T helper (Th) cytokine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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