Blue-light irradiation up-regulates the ent-kaurene synthase gene and affects the avoidance response of protonemal growth in Physcomitrella patens

Sho Miyazaki, Hikaru Toyoshima, Masahiro Natsume, Masatoshi Nakajima, Hiroshi Kawaide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Main conclusion: We report a novel physiological response to blue light in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Blue light regulates ent -kaurene biosynthesis and avoidance response to protonemal growth. Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpene-type plant hormones biosynthesized from ent-kaurenoic acid via ent-kaurene. While the moss Physcomitrella patens has part of the GA biosynthetic pathway, from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurenoic acid, no GA is found in this species. Caulonemal differentiation in a P. patens mutant with a disrupted bifunctional ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase/ent-kaurene synthase (PpCPS/KS) gene is suppressed under red light, and is recovered by application of ent-kaurene and ent-kaurenoic acid. This indicates that derivatives of ent-kaurenoic acid, not GAs, might act as endogenous developmental regulators. Here, we found unique responses in the protonemal growth of P. patens under unilateral blue light, and these regulators were involved in the responses. When protonemata of the wild type were incubated under blue light, the chloronemal filaments grew in the opposite direction to the light source. Although this avoidance was not observed in the ent-kaurene deficient mutant, chloronemal growth toward a blue-light source in the mutant was suppressed by application of ent-kaurenoic acid, and the growth was rescued to that in the wild type. Expression analysis of the PpCPS/KS gene showed that the mRNA level under blue light was rapidly increased and was five times higher than under red light. These results suggest that regulators derived from ent-kaurenoic acid are strongly involved not only in the growth regulation of caulonemal differentiation under red light, but also in the light avoidance response of chloronemal growth under blue light. In particular, growth under blue light is regulated via the PpCPS/KS gene.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)117-124
Number of pages8
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Blue-light signaling
  • Diterpene
  • Gibberellin
  • Physcomitrella
  • Red-light signaling
  • ent-Kaurenoic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science


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