Brain-computer interface in stroke: A review of progress

Stefano Silvoni, Ander Ramos-Murguialday, Marianna Cavinato, Chiara Volpato, Giulia Cisotto, Andrea Turolla, Francesco Piccione, Niels Birbaumer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

163 Citations (Scopus)


Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has been used for rehabilitation after stroke and there are a number of reports involving stroke patients in BCI-feedback training. Most publications have demonstrated the efficacy of BCI technology in post-stroke rehabilitation using output devices such as Functional Electrical Stimulation, robot, and orthosis. The aim of this review is to focus on the progress of BCI-based rehabilitation strategies and to underline future challenges. A brief history of clinical BCI-approaches is presented focusing on stroke motor rehabilitation. A context for three approaches of a BCI-based motor rehabilitation program is outlined: the substitutive strategy, classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Furthermore, we include an overview of a pilot study concerning a new neuro-forcefeedback strategy. This pilot study involved healthy participants. Finally we address some challenges for future BCI-based rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-252
Number of pages8
JournalClinical EEG and Neuroscience
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain-computer interface
  • Brain-machine interface
  • Neuro-forcefeedback
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Progress
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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