Case report: Importance of early and continuous tocilizumab therapy in nephrotic syndrome associated with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease: A case series

Daiki Kojima, Shintaro Yamaguchi, Akinori Hashiguchi, Kaori Hayashi, Kiyotaka Uchiyama, Norifumi Yoshimoto, Keika Adachi, Takashin Nakayama, Ken Nishioka, Takaya Tajima, Kohkichi Morimoto, Jun Yoshino, Tadashi Yoshida, Toshiaki Monkawa, Takeshi Kanda, Hiroshi Itoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a systemic and polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease involving multiple organs, including the kidneys, due to the overproduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Recently, several reports have suggested that excessive IL-6 actions in iMCD could have a causal relationship with the development of diverse histopathological renal manifestations that cause nephrotic syndrome. However, the treatment for such cases remains unclear. We report a series of three cases of nephrotic syndrome due to iMCD that helps to delineate the importance of early and continuous therapy with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. First, treatment was suspended for infectious control, and the patient presented with nephrotic syndrome due to diffuse mesangial and endocapillary hypercellularity without immune deposits complicating acute kidney injury. Second, iMCD was treated with prednisolone alone. The patient suddenly developed nephrotic syndrome due to immune-complex glomerulonephritis, not otherwise specified, complicated with acute kidney injury. In the third case, nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous glomerulonephritis was diagnosed, with a skin rash and IgE antibodies to tocilizumab, and was therefore treated with prednisolone alone. In contrast to the first two cases, the third progressed to end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Taken together, this series suggests that clinicians should maintain clinical vigilance for iMCD as a possible underlying component of nephrotic syndrome, since iMCD presents with a variety of renal pathologies. Prompt initiation and continuous administration of tocilizumab are likely key determinants of renal outcomes in such cases. In particular, when tocilizumab is suspended due to infection or in the perioperative period, consideration of its expeditious resumption should be made, taking into account both the withdrawal period and systemic conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1037032
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan 9

Keywords

  • IL-6 inhibitor
  • acute kidney injury
  • idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease
  • renal pathology
  • renal replacement therapy
  • secondary nephrotic syndrome
  • tocilizumab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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