Category theoretic analysis of photon-based decision making

Makoto Naruse, Song Ju Kim, Masashi Aono, Martin Berthel, Aurélien Drezet, Serge Huant, Hirokazu Hori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Decision making is a vital function in the age of machine learning and artificial intelligence; however, its physical realization and theoretical fundamentals are not yet well understood. In our former study, we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The two-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. In this study, we present a category theoretic modeling and analysis of single-photon-based decision making, including a quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure and the braid structure in triangulated categories provide better understandings and quantitative metrics of the underlying mechanisms for the single-photon decision maker. This study provides insight and a foundation for analyzing more complex and uncertain problems for machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1305-1333
Number of pages29
JournalInternational Journal of Information Technology and Decision Making
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sept 1


  • Decision making
  • category theory
  • machine learning
  • multi-armed bandit problem
  • single photon
  • system modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)


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