Cellular building unit integrated with microstrand-shaped bacterial cellulose

Kayoko Hirayama, Teru Okitsu, Hiroki Teramae, Daisuke Kiriya, Hiroaki Onoe, Shoji Takeuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


In bottom-up tissue engineering, a method to integrate a pathway of nutrition and oxygen into the resulting macroscopic tissue has been highly desired, but yet to be established. This paper presents a cellular building unit made from microstrand-shaped bacterial cellulose (BC microstrand) covered with mammalian cells. The BC microstrands are fabricated by encapsulating Acetobacter xylinum with a calcium alginate hydrogel microtube using a double co-axial microfluidic device. The mechanical strength and porous property of the BC microstrands can be regulated by changing the initial density of the bacteria. By folding or reeling the building unit, we demonstrated the multiple shapes of millimeter-scale cellular constructs such as coiled and ball-of-yarn-shaped structures. Histological analysis of the cellular constructs indicated that the BC microstrand served as a pathway of nutrition and oxygen to feed the cells in the central region. These findings suggest that our approach facilitates creating functional macroscopic tissue used in various fields such as drug screening, wound healing, and plastic surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2421-2427
Number of pages7
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Mar
Externally publishedYes


  • Bottom-up tissue engineering
  • Macroscopic 3D tissue
  • Microfluidic device
  • Nanofibrous scaffold
  • Nutrition transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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