Changes in hardness of the human elbow flexor muscles after eccentric exercise

Mitsuyoshi Murayama, Kazunori Nosaka, Tsugutake Yoneda, Kazutoshi Minamitani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle hardness after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors muscles that produce muscle shortening and swelling. To assess muscle hardness, a pressure method was used in which the force required to deform the tissue (skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle) was recorded. Eleven healthy male students performed 24 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexor muscles with their non-dominant arms. Muscle hardness, maximal isometric force (MIF), muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, relaxed elbow joint angle (RANG), upper-arm circumference (CIR) and B-mode ultrasound transverse images were measured before, immediately after, and 1-5 days after exercise. A long-lasting decrease in MIF, muscle swelling shown by increases in CIR and muscle thickness, large increases in plasma CK activity, and development of muscle soreness indicated that damage occurred to the elbow flexor muscles. The RANG had decreased by approximately 20°at 1-3 days after exercise and showed a gradual recovery thereafter. The CIR increased gradually after exercise and peaked on day 5 post-exercise, the mean amount of increase in CIR being 18 mm. Muscle hardness measured at the relaxed elbow position did not change until 3 days after exercise, but increased significantly (P < 0.01) on days 4 and 5 post-exercise. On the other hand, muscle hardness measured when forcibly extending the shortened elbow joint increased significantly (P < 0.01) with time and peaked at 3 days after exercise. Muscle hardness assessed by the pressure method seems to reflect changes in muscle stiffness and swelling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-367
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jan 1


  • Muscle damage
  • Muscle shortening
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Pressure method
  • Swelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)


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