Children in Tokyo Have a Long Sustained Axial Length from Age 3 Years: The Tokyo Myopia Study

Tomoki Maruyama, Erisa Yotsukura, Hidemasa Torii, Kiwako Mori, Mikako Inokuchi, Mitsuaki Tokumura, Debabrata Hazra, Mamoru Ogawa, Akiko Hanyuda, Kazuo Tsubota, Toshihide Kurihara, Kazuno Negishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: myopia prevalence is high among Japanese schoolchildren, but the underlying causes are unclear. Objective: To examine the distributions of ocular biometry and refraction and their associations with lifestyle variables among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study included 2140 children aged 3–14 years in Tokyo, Japan, and evaluated the distributions under non-cycloplegic conditions and the associated environmental factors. Results: The prevalence of spherical equivalent (SE) ≤−0.75 diopter among preschoolers (aged 3–6 years), elementary school students (aged 6–11 years), and junior high school students (aged 12–14 years) was 49.7%, 72.4%, and 87.7%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the time spent using digital devices was associated positively with lens thickness (β = 0.010; p < 0.050) but not SE, axial length, or vitreous chamber depth. The time spent reading was associated negatively with lens thickness (β = −0.012; p < 0.050), SE (β = −0.152; p < 0.010), axial length (β = 0.110; p < 0.001), and vitreous chamber depth (β = 0.110; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The data indicated that almost half of preschoolers may be myopic. The association with the lens thickness differed depending on the type of near work performed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4413
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug


  • axial length
  • myopia
  • ocular biometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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