Exercise is an effective strategy to prevent and improve obesity and related metabolic diseases. Exercise increases the metabolic demand in the body. Although many of the metabolic health benefits of exercise depend on skeletal muscle adaptations, exercise exerts many of its metabolic effects through the liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. Therefore, exercise is the physiological state in which inter-organ signaling is most important. By contrast, circadian rhythms in mammals are associated with the regulation of several physiological and biological functions, including body temperature, sleep-wake cycle, physical activity, hormone secretion, and metabolism, which are controlled by clock genes. Glucose and lipid tolerance reportedly exhibit diurnal variations, being lower in the evening than in the morning. Therefore, the effects of exercise on substrate metabolism at different times of the day may differ. In this review, the importance of exercise timing considerations will be outlined, incorporating a chrono-exercise perspective.
- Circadian rhythm
- Energy metabolism
- Exercise timing
- Inter-organ communication
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation