CIGS thin films, solar cells, and submodules fabricated using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam source

Shogo Ishizuka, Akimasa Yamada, Hajime Shibata, Paul Fons, Shigeru Niki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film growth using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam (R-Se) source leads to a significant reduction in the amount of raw Se source material wasted during growth and exhibits unique film properties such as highly dense, smooth surfaces and large grain size. R-Se grown CIGS solar cells also show concomitant unique properties different from conventional evaporative Se (E-Se) source grown CIGS cells. In the present work, the impact of modified surfaces, interfaces, and bulk crystal properties of R-Se grown CIGS films on the solar cell performance was studied. When a R-Se source was used, Na diffusion into CIGS layers was enhanced while a remarkable diffusion of elemental Ga and Se into Mo back contact layers was observed. Improvements in the bulk crystal quality as manifested by large grain size and increased Na concentration with the use of a R-Se source is expected to be effective to improve photovoltaic performance. Using a R-Se source for the growth of CIGS absorber layers at a relatively low growth temperature, we have successfully demonstrated a monolithically integrated submodule efficiency of 15.0% (17 cells, aperture area of 76.5 cm2) on 0.25-mm thick soda-lime glass substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7216-7220
Number of pages5
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug 31
Externally publishedYes


  • Cu(In,Ga)Se
  • Interface
  • Rf-plasma cracked Se
  • Solar cells
  • Submodules
  • Surface
  • Thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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