Clinical Application of the Internal Mammary Artery Perforator Adipofascial Flap

Mari Nishimon, Hirotoshi Ohara, Kanetoshi Ohara, Hisao Ogata, Kazuo Kishi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Skin ulcers on the anterior chest wall are caused mainly by radiation therapy for breast cancer and anterior mediastinitis after thoracotomy, and they are often refractory. Some muscle flaps are commonly used for anterior chest wall reconstruction, but muscle flaps accompany high invasion. We used the internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP) adipofascial flap and IMAP skin flap for the anterior chest wall reconstruction. Methods: We examined the IMAPs using a handheld Doppler device and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography preoperatively. Each flap was designed based on the location of the IMAP and the size of the flap was dependent on the coverage required by the size and location of the skin ulcer. The location of the IMAPs functioned as the pivot point of the flap and the flap was flipped or swung on the defect. Results: We used IMAP adipofascial flap for 2 cases and IMAP skin flap for 1 case. In those 3 cases, we could elevate the flap with no complications even after the internal mammary artery had been harvested. There was no recurrence of the skin ulcer or wound infection after the operation. Conclusions: In this study, we reported 3 cases of skin ulcer on the anterior chest wall reconstructed with the IMAP adipofascial and skin flap. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of the IMAP flap as an adipofascial flap. The IMAP adipofascial flap accompanies less invasion than muscle flaps and the surgical procedure is relatively easy. The IMAP adopofascial flap is considered as one of the effective means for anterior chest wall reconstruction.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2062
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Global Open
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Mar 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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