Clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors in a large Japanese national cohort


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Objectives: Optimal management of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors (T1-GNETs) remains unknown, with few reports on their long-term prognosis. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of T1-GNETs. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with T1-GNET during 1991–2019 at 40 institutions in Japan. Results: Among 172 patients, endoscopic resection (ER), endoscopic surveillance, and surgery were performed in 84, 61, and 27, respectively, including 27, 77, and 2 patients with pT1a-M, pT1b-SM, and pT2 tumors, respectively. The median tumor diameter was 5 (range 0.8–55) mm. Four (2.9%) patients had lymph node metastasis (LNM); none had liver metastasis. LNM rates were significantly higher in tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (15.8%; 3/19) than in those without (1.1%; 1/92) (P = 0.016). For tumors <10 mm, LVI and LNM rates were 18.4% (14/76) and 2.2% (2/90), respectively, which were not significantly different from those of tumors 10–20 mm (LVI 13.3%; 2/15, P = 0.211; and LNM 0%; 0/17, P = 1.0). However, these rates were significantly lower than those of tumors >20 mm (LVI 60%; 3/5, P = 0.021; and LNM 40%; 2/5, P = 0.039). No tumor recurrence or cause-specific death occurred during the median follow-up of 10.1 (1–25) years. The 10-year overall survival rate was 97%. Conclusions: Type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumors showed indolent nature and favorable long-term prognoses. LVI could be useful in indicating the need for additional treatments. ER for risk prediction of LNM should be considered for tumors <10 mm and may be feasible for tumors 10–20 mm. Trial registration: The study protocol was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) under the identifier UMIN000029927.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-766
Number of pages10
JournalDigestive Endoscopy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Sept
Externally publishedYes


  • Japanese large cohort
  • autoimmune gastritis
  • gastric carcinoid
  • prognosis
  • type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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