Clinical parameters and optimal candidates for early definitive fixation of extremity injury: A nationwide study

Ryo Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Udagawa, Nishida Yusho Nishida, Ono Soichiro Ono, Sasaki Junichi Sasaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: While various strategies of fracture fixation for trauma patients have been discussed, optimal candidates remain unclear for early definitive fixation. The aim of this study was to integrate several clinical parameters into a scoring system and determine a cut-off value for safe early definitive surgery for extremity fractures. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with fracture in an extremity in Japanese Trauma Data Bank from 2004 to 2019. We included adult patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation for extremity injury before any other surgical intervention and excluded those who arrived with cardiac arrest. Several clinical parameters, such as age, vital signs, abbreviated injury scale (AIS) in the chest, and injury severity score (ISS), were examined with multivariate logistic regression models to predict in-hospital mortality, and then integrated into a scoring system based on each odds ratio. To determine a cut-off value of the scoring system for safe early definitive surgery, in-hospital mortality and/or postoperative complications were compared between patients who underwent definitive fixation within 24 h of injury and patients who did not in subgroups based on the scores. Results: Of 50,631 patients eligible for this study, 16,119 (31.8%) underwent early definitive fixation. A 0–15 scoring system with parameters including age >70 years, GCS <8, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, AIS in the chest ≥3, ISS ≥20, and transfusion requirement within 24 h of arrival was developed. At scores ≥10, early definitive fixation was found to be significantly associated with high in-hospital mortality, and at scores <10, in-hospital mortality was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions: We integrated clinical parameters into the scoring system with a scale of 0–15 and determined that a score of 10 is the cut-off score. We determined that patients with a score <10 can safely undergo early definitive fixation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-260
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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