Clinical Practice Guideline for the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Voriconazole in Non-Asian and Asian Adult Patients: Consensus Review by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Japanese Antimicrobial Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Guideline Committee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Voriconazole, an antifungal drug, is metabolized by a cytochrome P450 isozyme. Increased adverse effects are observed in Asians because of the high rate of poor metabolizers. In this therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) guideline, recommendations were made according to ethnic group. Methods: Five clinical questions were used. For the preparation of the guideline, the performance of TDM in multicenter studies was surveyed (study 1). We also conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (study 2) to establish recommendations for non-Asians and Asians. Findings: In study 1, 401 patients were surveyed. A risk of supratherapeutic concentrations was found in Japanese patients who adhered to the recommended dose. Target trough levels were achieved in 87% of patients with dose reductions. Although the trough level measured at the onset of adverse effects (AEs) was significantly associated with hepatotoxicity, no significant correlation was found between the initial trough level and hepatotoxicity, which indicated that hepatotoxicity was successfully prevented by the trough-guided dosing. In study 2, 22 studies (11 Asian locations and 11 non-Asian locations) were included in meta-analysis for the relationship between trough cutoff level (3, 4, 5, 5.5, and 6 µg/mL) and AEs. Significant differences were found for all cutoff levels, with the highest odds ratio for 4.0 µg/mL in Asian locations. In contrast, in non-Asian locations, no more than 1 study was available for any trough cutoff level, except for 5.5 µg/mL, at which level a significant increase in AEs was found. These findings indicate that TDM is strongly recommended to prevent AEs in Asians, and TDM is generally recommended for non-Asians to address subtherapeutic concentrations. TDM on day 3 is recommended to assess pharmacokinetic properties, including loading and maintenance doses. If the patient condition permits, delaying until day 5 is suggested for Asians because of the prolonged t½ in poor metabolizers. A trough level ≥1.0 µg/mL is strongly recommended to improve efficacy. Trough levels ≥2.0 µg/mL are suggested for invasive aspergillosis. To decrease adverse effects, trough levels <4.0 µg/mL are strongly recommended in Asians, whereas trough levels <5.5 µg/mL are generally recommended in non-Asians. Maintenance doses of 4 and 3 mg/kg twice daily are recommended in non-Asians and Asians, respectively. Implications: Different indications, timings, and target trough levels for TDM and different regimens are suggested for Asians and non-Asians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1604-1623
Number of pages20
JournalClinical Therapeutics
Volume44
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Keywords

  • fungal infection
  • gene phenotype guideline
  • therapeutic drug monitoring
  • voriconazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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