This study aimed to compare color-naming characteristics of color-vision deficient (CVD) observers with those of normal trichromat (NT) observers and investigate color sensation. This experiment used 68 color stimuli at three different luminance levels. In the color-naming task, five CVD and five NT subjects selected one color category among 11 basic color terms, and an unknown category. In the evaluation task for color sensation, they evaluated color impression using six adjectives. We used the multidimensional scaling method to construct color categorization space, and applied the factor analysis to compare color sensation of the CVD subjects with those of the NT subjects. As the results, we found that the green and blue categories of the CVD subjects were expanded more than those of NT the subjects at all luminance levels. Moreover, with the activity evaluation for the pink or purple categories, there was difference between the NT and CVD subjects, although the color categorization behaviors of the CVD subjects were similar to those of the NT subjects.