This study designed the transdermal formulations containing indomethacin (IMC)—1% IMC was crushed with 0.5% methylcellulose and 5% 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin by the bead mill method, and the milled IMC was gelled with or without 2% l-menthol (a permeation enhancer) by Carbopol® 934 (without menthol, N-IMC gel; with menthol, N-IMC/MT gel). In addition, the drug release, skin penetration and percutaneous absorption of the N-IMC/MT gel were investigated. The particle sizes of N-IMC gel were approximately 50–200 nm, and the combination with l-menthol did not affect the particle characterization of the transdermal formulations. In an in vitro experiment using a Franz diffusion cell, the skin penetration in N-IMC/MT gel was enhanced than the N-IMC gel, and the percutaneous absorption (AUC) from the N-IMC/MT gel was 2-fold higher than the N-IMC gel. On the other hand, the skin penetration from the N-IMC/MT gel was remarkably attenuated at a 4◦C condition, a temperature that inhibits all energy-dependent endocytosis. In conclusion, this study designed transdermal formulations containing IMC solid nanoparticles and l-menthol, and found that the combination with l-menthol enhanced the skin penetration of the IMC solid nanoparticles. In addition, the energy-dependency of the skin penetration of IMC solid nanoparticles was demonstrated. These findings suggest the utility of a transdermal drug delivery system to provide the easy application of solid nanoparticles (SNPs).
- Drug delivery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry