Comorbid psychiatric disorders and long-term survival after liver transplantation in transplant facilities with a psychiatric consultation-liaison team: a multicenter retrospective study

Hiroyuki Kimura, Shinichi Kishi, Hisashi Narita, Teruaki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Okada, Daisuke Fujisawa, Naoko Sugita, Shun’ichi Noma, Yosuke Matsumoto, Ayako Ohashi, Hiroshi Mitsuyasu, Keizo Yoshida, Hiroaki Kawasaki, Katsuji Nishimura, Yasuhiro Ogura, Norio Ozaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Objective: Comorbid psychiatric disorders negatively affect the survival rate of patients with some physical disorders. In liver transplant recipients, various psychiatric disorders have been identified as worsening prognosis. However, little is known about how the presence of any comorbid (overall) disorders affect the survival rate of transplant recipients. In this study, we examined the effect of overall comorbid psychiatric disorders on survival rate in liver transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 1006 recipients who underwent liver transplantation between September 1997 and July 2017 across eight transplant facilities with a psychiatric consultation-liaison team were identified consecutively. Recipients were categorized into those with comorbid psychiatric disorders and those without comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the comorbid psychiatric disorder group, psychiatric disorder diagnosis and time of diagnosis were investigated retrospectively. Results: Of the 1006 recipients, 294 (29.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in the 1006 recipients were insomnia (N = 107, 10.6%), delirium (N = 103, 10.2%), major depressive disorder (N = 41, 4.1%), adjustment disorder (N = 19, 1.9%), anxiety disorder (N = 17, 1.7%), intellectual disability (N = 11, 1.1%), autism spectrum disorder (N = 7, 0.7%), somatic symptom disorder (N = 4, 0.4%) schizophrenia (N = 4, 0.4%), substance use disorder (N = 24, 2.4%) and personality disorder (N = 2, 0.2%). The most common time of psychiatric disorder diagnosis was within the first 3 months after liver transplantation (51.6%). The final mortality in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorder diagnosis during the five periods (pretransplant, transplant to 3 months, months to 1 year, 1 to 3 years, and over 3 years posttransplant) was 16.2%, 18.8%, 39.1%, 28.6%, and 16.2% respectively, and there were no significant differences between the five periods (χ2 = 8.05, df = 4, p = 0.09). Overall comorbid psychiatric disorders were significantly associated with shorter survival time (log-rank test: p = 0.01, hazard ratio: 1.59 [95% confidence interval: 1.14–2.21], survival rate at the endpoint [%]: 62.0 vs. 83.3). However, after adjusting for confounding variables using Cox proportional hazards regression, there was no significant effect of overall comorbid psychiatric disorders on prognosis. Conclusion: Comorbid psychiatric disorders did not affect the survival rate of liver transplant recipients in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106
JournalBMC Gastroenterology
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

Keywords

  • Consultation-liaison psychiatry
  • Liver transplant recipient
  • Psychiatric disorder
  • Survival rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

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