Comparative study of phase transformation in single-crystal germanium during single and cyclic nanoindentation

Koji Kosai, Hu Huang, Jiwang Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Single-crystal germanium is a semiconductor material which shows complicated phase transformation under high pressure. In this study, new insight into the phase transformation of diamond-cubic germanium (dc-Ge) was attempted by controlled cyclic nanoindentation combined with Raman spectroscopic analysis. Phase transformation from dc-Ge to rhombohedral phase (r8-Ge) was experimentally confirmed for both single and cyclic nanoindentation under high loading/unloading rates. However, compared to single indentation, double cyclic indentation with a low holding load between the cycles caused more frequent phase transformation events. Double cyclic indentation caused more stress in Ge than single indentation and increased the possibility of phase transformation. With increase in the holding load, the number of phase transformation events decreased and finally became less than that under single indentation. This phenomenon was possibly caused by defect nucleation and shear accumulation during the holding process, which were promoted by a high holding load. The defect nucleation suppressed the phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge, and shear accumulation led to another phase transformation pathway, respectively. A high holding load promoted these two phenomena, and thus decreased the possibility of phase transformation from dc-Ge to r8-Ge.

Original languageEnglish
Article number333
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Nov


  • Crystal defect
  • Cyclic load
  • Germanium
  • Nanoindentation
  • Phase transformation
  • Single crystal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Inorganic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative study of phase transformation in single-crystal germanium during single and cyclic nanoindentation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this