Compound 13 Promotes Epidermal Healing in Mouse Fetuses via Activation of AMPK

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Unlike adults, early developing fetuses can completely regenerate tissue, and replicating this could lead to the development of treatments to reduce scarring. Mice epidermal structures, including wound healing patterns, are regenerated until embryonic day (E) 13, leaving visible scars thereafter. These patterns require actin cable formation at the epithelial wound margin through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. We aimed to investigate whether the administration of compound 13 (C13), a recently discovered AMPK activator, to the wound could reproduce this actin remodeling and skin regeneration pattern through its AMPK activating effect. The C13 administration resulted in partial formations of actin cables, which would normally result in scarring, and scar reduction during the healing of full-layer skin defects that occurred in E14 and E15 fetuses. Furthermore, C13 was found to cause AMPK activation in these embryonic mouse epidermal cells. Along with AMPK activation, Rac1 signaling, which is involved in leaflet pseudopodia formation and cell migration, was suppressed in C13-treated wounds, indicating that C13 inhibits epidermal cell migration. This suggests that actin may be mobilized by C13 for cable formation. Administration of C13 to wounds may achieve wound healing similar to regenerative wound healing patterns and may be a potential candidate for new treatments to heal scars.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1013
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr


  • AMPK
  • actin cable
  • compound 13
  • epidermal healing
  • mouse fetus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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