Concept of Simulation Surgery

Toyomi Fujino, Hideo Nakajima, Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Masahiro Kobayashi, Takuya Kurihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of simulation surgery was first proposed by Fujino in 19891 and reinforced in 1991.2 It is divided in two sections; empirical simulation surgery, where the surgical procedure is designed first in the surgeon's brain, and computer simulation surgery, where the disease condition and the possible surgical procedures can be viewed in three-dimentions (3D) either on a computer monitor, or by means of a solid 3D model, crafted from computer generated data, before proceeding to the actual surgery itself. Each of these sections is subdivided into three subsections; morphological, functional and psychological simulation surgery, respectively. Along those lines, the concept of simulation surgery is discussed, with special reference to plastic and reconstructive surger.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-114
Number of pages11
Journalthe keio journal of medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D
  • 4D simulation surgery
  • 5D simulation surgery
  • computer surgery
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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