Various malignancies exhibit high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR). The MSI-IVD kit, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method, was the first tumor-agnostic companion diagnostic to detect MSI status in MSI-H solid tumors. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS), which can also detect MSI-H/dMMR, has been made clinically available; however, its real-world concordance with PCR-based testing of MSI-H/dMMR remains to be investigated. The co-primary end points included the positive and negative predictive values of MSI-H/dMMR. A retrospective analysis of 80 patients who had undergone both MSI testing and NGS between July 2015 and March 2021 was conducted. Five patients were confirmed to have MSI-H in both examinations. Among the 75 patients diagnosed as microsatellite stable (MSS) by PCR-based testing, one with pancreatic cancer was diagnosed as having MSI-H after NGS. One patient with pancreatic cancer was diagnosed as having MSS in both tests was found to have a mutation in MLH1 by NGS, which was confirmed as dMMR by IHC staining. NGS had positive and negative predictive values of 100% (5/5) and 98.7% (74/75), respectively, for MSI-H. The concordance between NGS and PCR-based testing was 98.8% (79/80). Thus, NGS can be useful for evaluating MSI/MMR status in clinical practice and can be an important alternative method for detecting MSI-H/dMMR in the future.
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