Constant Load Pedaling Exercise Combined with Electrical Muscle Stimulation Leads to an Early Increase in Sweat Lactate Levels

Tomonori Sawada, Hiroki Okawara, Daisuke Nakashima, Kaito Ikeda, Joji Nagahara, Haruki Fujitsuka, Sosuke Hoshino, Yuta Maeda, Yoshinori Katsumata, Masaya Nakamura, Takeo Nagura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A novel exercise modality combined with electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) has been reported to increase cardiovascular and metabolic responses, such as blood lactate concentration. We aimed to examine the effect of constant load pedaling exercise, combined with EMS, by non-invasively and continuously measuring sweat lactate levels. A total of 22 healthy young men (20.7 ± 0.8 years) performed a constant load pedaling exercise for 20 min at 125% of the pre-measured ventilatory work threshold with (EMS condition) and without (control condition) EMS stimulation. Blood lactate concentration was measured by blood samples obtained from the earlobe every minute. Sweat lactate was monitored in real time using a sensor placed on the forearm. The sweat lactate threshold (sLT) was defined as the point of increase in sweat lactate. sLT occurred significantly earlier in the EMS condition than in the control condition. In the single regression analysis, the difference in sLT between the two conditions, as the independent variable, was a significant predictor of the difference in blood lactate concentrations at the end of the exercise (p < 0.05, r = −0.52). Sweat lactate measurement may be a noninvasive and simple alternative to blood lactate measurement to determine the effectiveness of exercise combined with EMS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9585
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec


  • blood lactate
  • electrical muscle stimulation
  • exercise
  • sweat lactate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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