Contribution of gene mutations to Silver-Russell syndrome phenotype: Multigene sequencing analysis in 92 etiology-unknown patients

Takanobu Inoue, Takanobu Inoue, Akie Nakamura, Akie Nakamura, Megumi Iwahashi-Odano, Kanako Tanase-Nakao, Keiko Matsubara, Junko Nishioka, Yoshihiro Maruo, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Hiroshi Suzumura, Seiji Sato, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Nobuyuki Murakami, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Kazuki Yamazawa, Kazuki Yamazawa, Tomoko Fuke, Satoshi Narumi, Akira OkaTsutomu Ogata, Tsutomu Ogata, Maki Fukami, Masayo Kagami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by growth failure and dysmorphic features. Major (epi)genetic causes of SRS are loss of methylation on chromosome 11p15 (11p15 LOM) and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat). However, IGF2, CDKN1C, HMGA2, and PLAG1 mutations infrequently cause SRS. In addition, other imprinting disturbances, pathogenic copy number variations (PCNVs), and monogenic disorders sometimes lead to SRS phenotype. This study aimed to clarify the frequency and clinical features of the patients with gene mutations among etiology-unknown patients with SRS phenotype. Results: Multigene sequencing was performed in 92 out of 336 patients referred to us for genetic testing for SRS. The clinical features of the patients were evaluated based on the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system. None of the patients showed 11p15 LOM, upd(7)mat, abnormal methylation levels for six differentially methylated regions (DMRs), namely, PLAGL1:alt-TSS-DMR on chromosome 6, KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR on chromosome 11, MEG3/DLK1:IG-DMR on chromosome 14, MEG3:TSS-DMR on chromosome 14, SNURF:TSS-DMR on chromosome 15, and GNAS A/B:TSS-DMR on chromosome 20, PCNVs, or maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16. Using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we screened four SRS-causative genes and 406 genes related to growth failure and/or skeletal dysplasia. We identified four pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in responsible genes for SRS (4.3%: IGF2 in two patients, CDKN1C, and PLAG1), and five pathogenic variants in causative genes for known genetic syndromes presenting with growth failure (5.4%: IGF1R abnormality (IGF1R), SHORT syndrome (PIK3R1), Floating-Harbor syndrome (SRCAP), Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (TCF4), and Noonan syndrome (PTPN11)). Functional analysis indicated the pathogenicity of the CDKN1C variant. The variants we detected in CDKN1C and PLAG1 were the second and third variants leading to SRS, respectively. Our patients with CDKN1C and PLAG1 variants showed similar phenotypes to previously reported patients. Furthermore, our data confirmed IGF1R abnormality, SHORT syndrome, and Floating-Harbor syndrome are differential diagnoses of SRS because of the shared phenotypes among these syndromes and SRS. On the other hand, the patients with pathogenic variants in causative genes for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and Noonan syndrome were atypical of these syndromes and showed partial clinical features of SRS. Conclusions: We identified nine patients (9.8%) with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants out of 92 etiology-unknown patients with SRS phenotype. This study expands the molecular spectrum of SRS phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Article number86
JournalClinical Epigenetics
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jun 16
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CDKN1C
  • Floating-Harbor syndrome
  • Functional analysis
  • IGF1R
  • Multigene sequencing
  • Noonan syndrome
  • PLAG1
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
  • SHORT syndrome
  • Silver-Russell syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics(clinical)

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