Counting Nambu-Goldstone Modes of Higher-Form Global Symmetries

Yoshimasa Hidaka, Yuji Hirono, Ryo Yokokura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


We discuss the counting of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes associated with the spontaneous breaking of higher-form global symmetries. Effective field theories of NG modes are developed based on symmetry-breaking patterns, using a generalized coset construction for higher-form symmetries. We derive a formula of the number of gapless NG modes, which involves expectation values of the commutators of conserved charges, possibly of different degrees.

Original languageEnglish
Article number071601
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 16

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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