The present study aimed to determine the magnitude of and risk factors for the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in patients with multiple system atrophy (PwMSA). The study was part of a cross-sectional, nationwide, multipurpose mail survey for Japanese PwMSA from October to December, 2020. The primary outcome was the impact of the early COVID-19 pandemic on ICF functioning, consisting of body function, activity, and participation. Age, sex, disease type, disease duration, and dwelling place were asked as participants’ characteristics, and the multiple system impairment questionnaire (MSIQ), patient health questionnaire-2, modified rankin scale, barthel index, life-space assessment (LSA), and EuroQoL were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for a worse function score due to the COVID-19 pandemic for each ICF functioning domain. A total of 155 patients (mean age 65.6 [SD 8.1] years; 43.9% women; mean disease duration 8.0 [SD 6.2] years; 65% MSA with cerebellar ataxia, 13% MSA with parkinsonism, 9% MSA with predominant autonomic features) were analyzed. Of the ICF functioning domains, the respondents reported that the early COVID-19 pandemic affected body function in 17.4%, activity in 17.6%, and participation in 46.0%. The adjusted multivariate model identified MSIQ and LSA as the two variables that independently contributed to all domains. The COVID-19 pandemic affected ICF functioning of PwMSA in Japan, and the severity of disease-related impairments and a large daily living space were common risk factors. These results help support the focus on patient characteristics for medical and social welfare support.
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