Crystal growth of clathrate hydrate in gas/liquid/liquid system: Variations in crystal-growth behavior

Yosuke Ishida, Riki Sakemoto, Ryo Ohmura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports the visual observations of the formation and growth of structure-II hydrate crystals on a water droplet partially immersed in liquid cyclopentane and exposed to difluoromethane gas. Each of the experiments was performed under prescribed temperature and pressure conditions in the range from 281.7 to 297.0 K and from 0.12 to 1.10 MPa in order to investigate the effect of the driving force for the hydrate crystal growth. The experiments were conducted at 25 different temperature-pressure conditions. It was found that the behavior of the hydrate crystal growth in this three-component system can be classified into three modes, which we called "cover", "expansion" and "line", depending on the temperature and pressure. The descriptions of the three types are summarized as follows. "Cover": Hydrate crystals first formed on the water-droplet surface and then grew to form a polycrystalline layer covering the surface. After complete surface coverage, no more hydrate growth and little change in the shape of the hydrate-covered water droplet were observed. "Expansion": Like "cover", the first crystals were observed on the water-droplet surface. They grew not only along the surface, but also toward the gas phase, and then continued to grow for more than several tens of minutes after complete coverage. "Line": Unlike the other two modes, hydrate crystals first formed at the three-phase interfacial line and grew along this line. The shape of the hydrate crystals eventually became like a doughnut, since the center of the water droplet collapsed when they grew.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9471-9477
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Aug 16


  • clathrates
  • crystal growth
  • crystal morphology
  • inclusion compounds
  • molecular crystals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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