Deep neural network-based classification of cardiotocograms outperformed conventional algorithms

Jun Ogasawara, Satoru Ikenoue, Hiroko Yamamoto, Motoshige Sato, Yoshifumi Kasuga, Yasue Mitsukura, Yuji Ikegaya, Masato Yasui, Mamoru Tanaka, Daigo Ochiai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiotocography records fetal heart rates and their temporal relationship to uterine contractions. To identify high risk fetuses, obstetricians inspect cardiotocograms (CTGs) by eye. Therefore, CTG traces are often interpreted differently among obstetricians, resulting in inappropriate interventions. However, few studies have focused on quantitative and nonbiased algorithms for CTG evaluation. In this study, we propose a newly constructed deep neural network model (CTG-net) to detect compromised fetal status. CTG-net consists of three convolutional layers that extract temporal patterns and interrelationships between fetal heart rate and uterine contraction signals. We aimed to classify the abnormal group (umbilical artery pH < 7.20 or Apgar score at 1 min < 7) and the normal group from CTG data. We evaluated the performance of the CTG-net with the F1 score and compared it with conventional algorithms, namely, support vector machine and k-means clustering, and another deep neural network model, long short-term memory. CTG-net showed the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 ± 0.04, which was significantly higher than that of long short-term memory. CTG-net, a quantitative and automated diagnostic aid system, enables early intervention for putatively abnormal fetuses, resulting in a reduction in the number of cases of hypoxic injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13367
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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