Designing Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Highly Selective Electrochemical Drug Sensors

Kanako Ishii, Genki Ogata, Takashi Yamamoto, Shuyi Sun, Hiroshi Shiigi, Yasuaki Einaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Drug detection in biological solutions is essential in studying the pharmacokinetics of the body. Electrochemical detection is an accurate and rapid method, but measuring multiple drugs that react at similar potentials is challenging. Herein, we developed an electrochemical sensor using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode modified with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) to provide specificity in drug sensing. The MIP is a polymer material designed to recognize and capture template molecules, enabling the selective detection of target molecules. In this study, we selected the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) as the template molecule. In the electrochemical measurements using an unmodified BDD, the DOX reduction was observed at approximately −0.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl). Other drugs, i.e., mitomycin C or clonazepam (CZP), also underwent a reduction reaction at a similar potential to that of DOX, when using the unmodified BDD, which rendered the accurate quantification of DOX in a mixture challenging. Similar measurements conducted in PBS using the MIP-BDD only resulted in a DOX reduction current, with no reduction reaction observed in the presence of mitomycin C and CZP. These results suggest that the MIP, whose template molecule is DOX, inhibits the reduction of other drugs on the electrode surface. Selective DOX measurement using the MIP-BDD was also possible in human plasma, and the respective limits of detection of DOX in PBS and human plasma were 32.10 and 16.61 nM. The MIP-BDD was durable for use in six repeated measurements, and MIP-BDD may be applicable as an electrochemical sensor for application in therapeutic drug monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1611-1619
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Mar 22


  • boron-doped diamond
  • doxorubicin
  • electrochemistry
  • molecularly imprinted polymer
  • selectivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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