Determinant analysis and developing evaluation indicators of grade of execution score of double axel jump in figure skating

Seiji Hirosawa, Michiko Watanabe, Yoshimitsu Aoki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A figure skating jump score is determined by the sum of the base value based on the difficulty and grade of execution (GOE) that indicates the performance quality. Therefore, performing a high-quality jump to obtain a high GOE is essential to win a competition. However, the relationship between the GOE and kinematic parameters remains unclear. We analysed the horizontal distance, vertical height, and landing speed of double axel jumps in the Ladies’ Short Program at the 2019 World Championships. The highest GOE group had significantly larger horizontal distances than the middle and lower groups, while the landing speed and vertical height were not significantly different. A principal component regression analysis was conducted to clarify the contrast between the three variables affecting the GOE. The results showed that greater horizontal distance and landing speed compared to vertical height (component 1) and greater horizontal distance compared to landing speed (component 3) contributed to higher GOE. We divided skaters into four clusters using these two components and provided general GOE acquisition strategies for each cluster. Finally, to apply our results to the industry, we proposed two new evaluation indicators which are highly correlated with the two components and easy to interpret.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)470-481
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of sports sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Ice Scope
  • deterministic model
  • performance analysis
  • principal component regression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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